Oct. 02, 2013

Python Glossary

Python Glossary

This page is meant to be a quick reference guide to Python.

It is far from done, but it is a start.

If you see something that needs to be added, please let me know and I will add
it to the list.
">>>"
The default Python prompt of the interactive shell.

Often seen for code examples which can be executed interactively in the
interpreter.
abs
Return the absolute value of a number.
argument
Extra information which the computer uses to perform commands.
argparse
Argparse is a parser for command-line options, arguments and subcommands.
assert
Used during debugging to check for conditions that ought to apply
assignment
Giving a value to a variable.
block
Section of code which is grouped together
break
Used to exit a for loop or a while loop.
class
A template for creating user-defined objects.
compiler
Translates a program written in a high-level language into a low-level language.
continue
Used to skip the current block, and return to the "for" or "while" statement
conditional statement
Statement that contains an "if" or "if/else".
debugging
The process of finding and removing programming errors.
def
Defines a function or method
dictionary
A mutable associative array (or dictionary) of key and value pairs. 

Can contain mixed types (keys and values). Keys must be a hashable type.	
distutils
Package included in the Python Standard Library for installing, building and
distributing Python code.
docstring
A docstring is a string literal that occurs as the first statement in a module,
function, class, or method definition.
__future__
A pseudo-module which programmers can use to enable new language features which
are not compatible with the current interpreter.
easy_install
Easy Install is a python module (easy_install) bundled with setuptools that lets
you automatically download, build, install, and manage Python packages.
evaluation order
Python evaluates expressions from left to right. Notice that while evaluating
an assignment, the right-hand side is evaluated before the left-hand side.
exceptions
Means of breaking out of the normal flow of control of a code block in order to
handle errors or other exceptional conditions
expression
Python code that produces a value.
filter
filter(function, sequence) returns a sequence consisting of those items from the
sequence for which function(item) is true
float
An immutable floating point number.
for
Iterates over an iterable object, capturing each element to a local variable for
use by the attached block
function	
A parameterized sequence of statements.
function call
An invocation of the function with arguments.
garbage collection
The process of freeing memory when it is not used anymore.
generators
A function which returns an iterator.
high level language
Designed to be easy for humans to read and write.
IDLE
Integrated development environment
if statement
Conditionally executes a block of code, along with else and elif
(a contraction of else-if).
immutable
Cannot be changed after its created.
import
Used to import modules whose functions or variables can be used in the current
program.
indentation
Python uses white-space indentation, rather than curly braces or keywords,
to delimit blocks.
int
An immutable integer of unlimited magnitude.
interactive mode
When commands are read from a tty, the interpreter is said to be in interactive
mode.
interpret
Execute a program by translating it one line at a time.
IPython
Interactive shell for interactive computing.
iterable
An object capable of returning its members one at a time.
lambda
They are a shorthand to create anonymous functions.
list
Mutable list, can contain mixed types.
list comprehension
A compact way to process all or part of the elements in a sequence and return
a list with the results.
literals
Literals are notations for constant values of some built-in types.
map
map(function, iterable, ...) Apply function to every item of iterable and return
a list of the results.
methods
A method is like a function, but it runs "on" an object. 
module
The basic unit of code reusability in Python. A block of code imported by some
other code.
object
Any data with state (attributes or value) and defined behavior (methods). 
object-oriented
allows users to manipulate data structures called objects in order to build and
execute programs. 
pass
Needed to create an empty code block
PEP 8
A set of recommendations how to write Python code.
Python Package Index
Official repository of third-party software for Python
Pythonic
An idea or piece of code which closely follows the most common idioms of the
Python language, rather than implementing code using concepts common to other
languages.
reduce
reduce(function, sequence) returns a single value constructed by calling the
(binary) function on the first two items of the sequence,
then on the result and the next item, and so on.
set
Unordered set, contains no duplicates
setuptools
Collection of enhancements to the Python distutils that allow you to more easily
build and distribute Python packages
slice
Sub parts of sequences
str
A character string: an immutable sequence of Unicode codepoints.
strings
Can include numbers, letters, and various symbols and be enclosed by either
double or single quotes, although single quotes are more commonly used.
statement
A statement is part of a suite (a "block" of code).
try
Allows exceptions raised in its attached code block to be caught and handled by
except clauses.
tuple
Immutable, can contain mixed types.
variables
Placeholder for texts and numbers. 

The equal sign (=) is used to assign values to variables.
while
Executes a block of code as long as its condition is true.
with
Encloses a code block within a context manager.
yield
Returns a value from a generator function.
Zen of Python
When you type "import this", Python’s philosophy is printed out.

More Reading

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Python_(programming_language)
http://docs.python.org/2/glossary.html
http://www.codecademy.com/glossary/python

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